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Kinetic temperature of massive star-forming molecular clumps measured with formaldehyde III. The Orion molecular cloud 1
Tang, X. D.1,2,3; Henkel, C.1,4; Menten, K. M.1; Wyrowski, F.1; Brinkmann, N.1; Zheng, X. W.5; Gong, Y.1,6,7; Lin, Y. X.1; Esimbek, J.2,3; Zhou, J. J.2,3; Yuan, Y.2,3; Li, D. L.2,3; He, Y. X.2,3
2018
Source PublicationASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
ISSN1432-0746
Volume609Pages:A16
Contribution Rank2
Abstract

We mapped the kinetic temperature structure of the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC-1) with para-H2CO(J(KaKc) = 3(03)- 2(02), 3(22)- 2(21), and 3(21)-2(20)) using the APEX 12m telescope. This is compared with the temperatures derived from the ratio of the NH3 (2, 2)/(1, 1) inversion lines and the dust emission. Using the RADEX non-LTE model, we derive the gas kinetic temperature modeling the measured averaged line ratios of para-H(2)CO3(22)-2(21)/3(03)-2(02) and 3(21)-2(20)/3(03)-2(02). The gas kinetic temperatures derived from the para-H(2)COline ratios are warm, ranging from 30 to > 200K with an average of 62 +/- 2K at a spatial density of 105 cm(-3). These temperatures are higher than those obtained from NH3 (2, 2) /(1, 1) and CH3CCH(6-5) in the OMC-1 region. The gas kinetic temperatures derived from para-H2CO agree with those obtained from warm dust components measured in the mid infrared (MIR), which indicates that the para-H2CO(3-2) ratios trace dense and warm gas. The cold dust components measured in the far infrared (FIR) are consistent with those measured with NH3 (2, 2) /(1, 1) and the CH3CCH(6-5) line series. With dust at MIR wavelengths and para-H2CO(3-2) on one side, and dust at FIR wavelengths, NH3 (2, 2) /(1, 1), and CH3CCH(6-5) on the other, dust and gas temperatures appear to be equivalent in the dense gas (n(H-2) greater than or similar to 104 cm 3) of the OMC-1 region, but provide a bimodal distribution, one more directly related to star formation than the other. The non-thermal velocity dispersions of para-H2CO are positively correlated with the gas kinetic temperatures in regions of strong non-thermal motion (Mach number > greater than or similar to 2 : 5) of the OMC-1, implying that the higher temperature traced by para-H2CO is related to turbulence on a similar to 0.06 pc scale. Combining the temperature measurements with para-H2CO and NH3 (2, 2) /(1, 1) line ratios, we find direct evidence for the dense gas along the northern part of the OMC-1 10 km s(-1) filament heated by radiation from the central Orion nebula.

Correspondent Emailxdtang@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de
KeywordStars: Formation Stars: Massive Ism: Clouds Ism: Molecules Radio Lines: Ism
SubtypeArticle
DOI10.1051/0004-6361/201731849
WOS HeadingsScience & Technology ; Physical Sciences
URL查看原文
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
WOS KeywordGalactic-center ; Interstellar Ammonia ; Physical Conditions ; Maser Emission ; Legacy Survey ; Iras Sources ; Dense Cores ; Dark Cloud ; Hot Core ; Ngc 2024
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000418963900016
Funding OrganizationProgram of the Light in China's Western Region (LCRW)(XBBS201424) ; National Natural Science Foundation of China(11433008, 11373062, 11127903) ; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ; Chinese Academy of Sciences President's International Fellowship Initiative(2017VMA0005) ; National Key Research and Development program(2017YFA0402702)
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Cited Times:12[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xao.ac.cn/handle/45760611-7/1819
Collection射电天文研究室_恒星形成与演化研究团组
射电天文研究室
Corresponding AuthorTang, X. D.
Affiliation1.Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
2.Chinese Acad Sci, Xinjiang Astron Observ, Urumqi 830011, Peoples R China
3.Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Radio Astron, Urumqi 830011, Peoples R China
4.King Abdulaziz Univ, Astron Dept, POB 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
5.Nanjing Univ, Dept Astron, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
6.Chinese Acad Sci, Purple Mt Observ, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
7.Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Radio Astron, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu, Peoples R China
First Author AffilicationXinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Corresponding Author AffilicationXinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Tang, X. D.,Henkel, C.,Menten, K. M.,et al. Kinetic temperature of massive star-forming molecular clumps measured with formaldehyde III. The Orion molecular cloud 1[J]. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,2018,609:A16.
APA Tang, X. D..,Henkel, C..,Menten, K. M..,Wyrowski, F..,Brinkmann, N..,...&He, Y. X..(2018).Kinetic temperature of massive star-forming molecular clumps measured with formaldehyde III. The Orion molecular cloud 1.ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,609,A16.
MLA Tang, X. D.,et al."Kinetic temperature of massive star-forming molecular clumps measured with formaldehyde III. The Orion molecular cloud 1".ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 609(2018):A16.
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