XAO OpenIR  > 其它
Extreme HBL behavior of Markarian 501 during 2012
Ahnen, M. L.1; Ansoldi, S.2,3,29,30,31,32; Antonelli, L. A.4; Arcaro, C.5,6; Babic, A.7,8,9,10,11; Banerjee, B.12; Bangale, P.13; Barres de Almeida, U.13,36; Barrio, J. A.14; Gonzalez, J. Becerra15; Bednarek, W.16; Bernardini, E.17,37; Berti, A.2,3,38; Bhattacharyya, W.17; Blanch, O.18; Bonnoli, G.19,20; Carosi, R.19,20; Carosi, A.4; Chatterjee, A.12; Colak, S. M.18; Colin, P.13; Colombo, E.15; Contreras, J. L.14; Cortina, J.18; Covino, S.4; Cumani, P.18; Da Vela, P.19,20; Dazzi, F.4; De Angelis, A.5,6; De Lotto, B.2,3; Delfino, M.18,39; Delgado, J.18; Di Pierro, F.5,6; Doert, M.21; Dominguez, A.14; Prester, D. Dominis7,8,9,10,11; Doro, M.5,6; Glawion, D. Eisenacher22; Engelkemeier, M.21; Ramazani, V. Fallah23,24,25; Fernandez-Barral, A.18; Fidalgo, D.14; Fonseca, M. V.14; Font, L.26,27; Fruck, C.13; Galindo, D.28; Lopez, R. J. Garcia15; Garczarczyk, M.17; Gaug, M.26,27; Giammaria, P.4; Godinovic, N.7,8,9,10,11; Gora, D.17; Guberman, D.18; Hadasch, D.29,30,31,32; Hahn, A.13; Hassan, T.18; Hayashida, M.29,30,31,32; Herrera, J.15; Hose, J.13; Hrupec, D.7,8,9,10,11; Ishio, K.13; Konno, Y.29,30,31,32; Kubo, H.29,30,31,32; Kushida, J.29,30,31,32; Kuvezdic, D.7,8,9,10,11; Lelas, D.7,8,9,10,11; Lindfors, E.23,24,25; Lombardi, S.4; Longo, F.2,3,38; Lopez, M.14; Maggio, C.26,27; Majumdar, P.12; Makariev, M.33; Maneva, G.33; Manganaro, M.15; Maraschi, L.4; Mariotti, M.5,6; Martinez, M.18; Mazin, D.13,29,30,31,32; Menzel, U.13; Minev, M.33; Miranda, J. M.19,20; Mirzoyan, R.13; Moralejo, A.18; Moreno, V.26,27; Moretti, E.13; Nagayoshi, T.29,30,31,32; Neustroev, V.23,24,25; Niedzwiecki, A.16; Nievas Rosillo, M.14; Nigro, C.17; Nilsson, K.23,24,25; Ninci, D.18; Nishijima, K.29,30,31,32; Noda, K.18; Nogues, L.18; Paiano, S.5,6; Palacio, J.18; Paneque, D.13; Paoletti, R.19,20; Paredes, J. M.28; Pedaletti, G.17; Peresano, M.2,3; Perri, L.4; Persic, M.2,3,40,41; Moroni, P. G. Prada34,35; Prandini, E.5,6; Puljak, I.7,8,9,10,11; Garcia, J. R.13; Reichardt, I.5,6; Ribo, M.28; Rico, J.18; Righi, C.4; Rugliancich, A.19,20; Saito, T.29,30,31,32; Satalecka, K.17; Schroeder, S.21; Schweizer, T.13; Shore, S. N.34,35; Sitarek, J.16; Snidaric, I.7,8,9,10,11; Sobczynska, D.16; Stamerra, A.4; Strzys, M.13; Suric, T.7,8,9,10,11; Takalo, L.23,24,25; Tavecchio, F.4; Temnikov, P.33; Terzic, T.7,8,9,10,11; Teshima, M.13,29,30,31,32; Torres-Alba, N.28; Treves, A.2,3; Tsujimoto, S.29,30,31,32; Vanzo, G.15; Vazquez Acosta, M.15; Vovk, I.13; Ward, J. E.18; Will, M.13; Zaric, D.7,8,9,10,11; Arbet-Engels, A.1; Baack, D.21; Balbo, M.42; Biland, A.1; Blank, M.22; Bretz, T.1,43; Bruegge, K.21; Bulinski, M.21; Buss, J.21; Dmytriiev, A.42; Dorner, D.22; Einecke, S.21; Elsaesser, D.21; Herbst, T.22; Hildebrand, D.1; Kortmann, L.21; Linhoff, L.21; Mahlke, M.1,43; Mannheim, K.22; Mueller, S. A.1; Neise, D.1; Neronov, A.42; Noethe, M.21; Oberkirch, J.21; Paravac, A.22; Rhode, W.21; Schleicher, B.22; Schulz, F.21; Sedlaczek, K.21; Shukla, A.22; Sliusar, V.42; Walter, R.42; Archer, A.44; Benbow, W.45; Bird, R.46; Brose, R.17,47; Buckley, J. H.44; Bugaev, V.44; Christiansen, J. L.48; Cui, W.49,50,51; Daniel, M. K.45; Falcone, A.52; Feng, Q.53; Finley, J. P.49; Gillanders, G. H.54; Gueta, O.17; Hanna, D.53; Hervet, O.55,56; Holder, J.57,58; Hughes, G.1,45; Huetten, M.17; Humensky, T. B.59; Johnson, C. A.55,56; Kaaret, P.60; Kar, P.61; Kelley-Hoskins, N.17; Kertzman, M.62; Kieda, D.61; Krause, M.17; Krennrich, F.63; Kumar, S.53; Lang, M. J.54; Lin, T. T. Y.53; Maier, G.17; McArthur, S.49; Moriarty, P.54; Mukherjee, R.64; O'Brien, S.65; Ong, R. A.46; Otte, A. N.66,67; Park, N.68; Petrashyk, A.59; Pichel, A.69; Pohl, M.17,47; Quinn, J.65; Ragan, K.53; Reynolds, P. T.70; Richards, G. T.57,58; Roache, E.45; Rovero, A. C.69; Rulten, C.71; Sadeh, I.17; Santander, M.72; Sembroski, G. H.49; Shahinyan, K.71; Sushch, I.17; Tyler, J.53; Wakely, S. P.68; Weinstein, A.63; Wells, R. M.63; Wilcox, P.60; Wilhel, A.17,47; Williams, D. A.55,56; Williamson, T. J.57,58; Zitzer, B.53; Perri, M.73,74; Verrecchia, F.73,74; Leto, C.73,74; Villata, M.75; Raiteri, C. M.75; Jorstad, S. G.76,102; Larionov, V. M.76,77; Blinov, D. A.76,78,79,80; Grishina, T. S.76; Kopatskaya, E. N.76; Larionova, E. G.76; Nikiforova, A. A.76,77; Morozova, D. A.76; Troitskaya, Yu. V.76; Troitsky, I. S.76; Kurtanidze, O. M.81,82,83; Nikolashvili, M. G.81; Kurtanidze, S. O.81; Kimeridze, G. N.81; Chigladze, R. A.81; Strigachev, A.84,85; Sadun, A. C.86; Moody, J. W.87; Chen, W. P.88; Lin, H. C.88; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.15; Arevalo, M. J.15; Carnerero, M. I.75; Gonzalez-Morales, P. A.15; Manilla-Robles, A.89; Jermak, H.90; Steele, I.90; Mundell, C.90; Benitez, E.91; Hiriart, D.92; Smith, P. S.93; Max-Moerbeck, W.94; Readhead, A. C. S.95; Richards, J. L.49; Hovatta, T.96; Lahteenmaki, A.97,98; Tornikoski, M.97; Tammi, J.97; Georganopoulos, M.99,100; Baring, M. G.101
2018-12-14
Source PublicationASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
ISSN1432-0746
Volume620Pages:23
Contribution Rank64
AbstractAims. We aim to characterize the multiwavelength emission from Markarian 501 (Mrk 501), quantify the energy-dependent variability, study the potential multiband correlations, and describe the temporal evolution of the broadband emission within leptonic theoretical scenarios. Methods. We organized a multiwavelength campaign to take place between March and July of 2012. Excellent temporal coverage was obtained with more than 25 instruments, including the MAGIC, FACT and VERITAS Cherenkov telescopes, the instruments on board the Swift and Fermi spacecraft, and the telescopes operated by the GASP-WEBT collaboration. Results. Mrk 501 showed a very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray flux above 0.2 TeV of similar to 0.5 times the Crab Nebula flux (CU) for most of the campaign. The highest activity occurred on 2012 June 9, when the VHE flux was similar to 3 CU, and the peak of the high-energy spectral component was found to be at similar to 2 TeV. Both the X-ray and VHE gamma-ray spectral slopes were measured to be extremely hard, with spectral indices <2 during most of the observing campaign, regardless of the X-ray and VHE flux. This study reports the hardest Mrk 501 VHE spectra measured to date. The fractional variability was found to increase with energy, with the highest variability occurring at VHE. Using the complete data set, we found correlation between the X-ray and VHE bands; however, if the June 9 flare is excluded, the correlation disappears (significance <3 sigma) despite the existence of substantial variability in the X-ray and VHE bands throughout the campaign. Conclusions. The unprecedentedly hard X-ray and VHE spectra measured imply that their low- and high-energy components peaked above 5 keV and 0.5 TeV, respectively, during a large fraction of the observing campaign, and hence that Mrk 501 behaved like an extreme high-frequency-peaked blazar (EHBL) throughout the 2012 observing season. This suggests that being an EHBL may not be a permanent characteristic of a blazar, but rather a state which may change over time. The data set acquired shows that the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of Mrk 501, and its transient evolution, is very complex, requiring, within the framework of synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models, various emission regions for a satisfactory description. Nevertheless the one-zone SSC scenario can successfully describe the segments of the SED where most energy is emitted, with a significant correlation between the electron energy density and the VHE gamma-ray activity, suggesting that most of the variability may be explained by the injection of high-energy electrons. The one-zone SSC scenario used reproduces the behavior seen between the measured X-ray and VHE gamma-ray fluxes, and predicts that the correlation becomes stronger with increasing energy of the X-rays.
Keywordastroparticle physics acceleration of particles radiation mechanisms: non-thermal BL Lacertae objects: general BL Lacertae objects: individual: Mrk501
DOI10.1051/0004-6361/201833704
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
WOS KeywordEXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT ; ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI ; GAMMA-RAY EMISSION ; BL-LAC OBJECTS ; X-RAY ; MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS ; TEV BLAZARS ; 3C 454.3 ; ENERGY ; VARIABILITY
Funding ProjectNational Aeronautics and Space Administration ; German BMBF ; MPG ; Italian INFN ; INAF ; Swiss National Fund SNF ; ERDF under the Spanish MINECO[FPA2015-69818-P] ; ERDF under the Spanish MINECO[FPA2012-36668] ; ERDF under the Spanish MINECO[FPA2015-68378-P] ; ERDF under the Spanish MINECO[FPA2015-69210-C6-2-R] ; ERDF under the Spanish MINECO[FPA2015-69210-C6-4-R] ; ERDF under the Spanish MINECO[FPA2015-69210-C6-6-R] ; ERDF under the Spanish MINECO[AYA2015-71042-P] ; ERDF under the Spanish MINECO[AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P] ; ERDF under the Spanish MINECO[ESP2015-71662-C2-2-P] ; ERDF under the Spanish MINECO[CSD2009-00064] ; Japanese JSPS ; MEXT ; Spanish Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa[SEV-2012-0234] ; Spanish Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa[SEV-2015-0548] ; Unidad de Excelencia Maria de Maeztu[MDM-2014-0369] ; Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ)[09/176] ; University of Rijeka Project[13.12.1.3.02] ; DFG Collaborative Research Centers[SFB823/C4] ; DFG Collaborative Research Centers[SFB876/C3] ; Polish National Research Centre[UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382] ; Brazilian MCTIC ; CNPq ; FAPERJ ; U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science ; U.S. National Science Foundation ; Smithsonian Institution ; NSERC in Canada ; DOE[DE-AC02-76SF00515] ; Russian Science Foundation[17-12-01029] ; Shota Rustaveli NSF[FR/577/6-320/13] ; Bulgarian National Science Fund of the Ministry of Education and Science[DN 08-1/2016] ; Bulgarian National Science Fund of the Ministry of Education and Science[DN 18-13/2017] ; UK Science and Technology Facilities Council ; Fermi Guest Investigator grants[NNX09AU10G] ; Fermi Guest Investigator grants[NNX12AO93G] ; NASA[NNX08AW31G] ; NASA[NNX11A043G] ; NASA[NNX14AQ89G] ; NSF[AST-0808050] ; NSF[AST-1109911] ; [PRIN-SKA-CTA-INAF2016]
WOS Research AreaAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS SubjectAstronomy & Astrophysics
WOS IDWOS:000453301200012
PublisherEDP SCIENCES S A
Citation statistics
Cited Times:8[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.xao.ac.cn/handle/45760611-7/2362
Collection其它
Corresponding AuthorPaneque, D.; Shukla, A.; Hughes, G.
Affiliation1.Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland
2.Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy
3.INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy
4.Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy
5.Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy
6.INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy
7.Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia
8.Univ Split, FESB, Split 21000, Croatia
9.Univ Zagreb, FER, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
10.Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia
11.Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
12.HBNI, Saha Inst Nucl Phys, 1 AF Bidhannagar,Sect 1, Kolkata 700064, India
13.Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany
14.Univ Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, Spain
15.Univ La Laguna, Inst Astrofis Canarias, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38206, Tenerife, Spain
16.Univ Lodz, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland
17.Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany
18.BIST, IFAE, Bellaterra 08193, Spain
19.Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy
20.INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy
21.Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany
22.Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany
23.Univ Turku, Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observ, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland
24.Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland
25.Univ Oulu, Astron Div, Oulu 90014, Finland
26.Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, Bellaterra 08193, Spain
27.Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES, IEEC, Bellaterra 08193, Spain
28.Univ Barcelona, ICC, IEEC, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain
29.Univ Tokyo, ICRR, Japanese MAGIC Consortium, Chiba 2778582, Japan
30.Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan
31.Tokai Univ, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan
32.Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan
33.Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, BU-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria
34.Univ Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy
35.INFN Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy
36.URCA, CBPF, BR-22290180 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
37.Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany
38.Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy
39.PIC, Bellaterra 08193, Spain
40.INAF Trieste, Trieste, Italy
41.Univ Bologna, Dept Phys & Astron, Bologna, Italy
42.Univ Geneva, ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland
43.Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst A 3, Aachen, Germany
44.Washington Univ, Dept Phys, St Louis, MO 63130 USA
45.Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observ, Amado, AZ 85645 USA
46.Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA
47.Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany
48.Calif Polytech State Univ San Luis Obispo, Dept Phys, San Luis Obispo, CA 94307 USA
49.Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA
50.Tsinghua Univ, Dept Phys, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China
51.Tsinghua Univ, Ctr Astrophys, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China
52.Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, Davey Lab 525, University Pk, PA 16802 USA
53.McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8, Canada
54.Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Phys, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland
55.Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA
56.Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA
57.Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA
58.Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA
59.Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, 538 W 120th St, New York, NY 10027 USA
60.Univ Iowa, Dept Phys & Astron, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA
61.Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA
62.Depauw Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Greencastle, IN 46135 USA
63.Iowa State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ames, IA 50011 USA
64.Columbia Univ, Barnard Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, New York, NY 10027 USA
65.Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin 4, Ireland
66.Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA
67.Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA
68.Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, 5640 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
69.UBA, CONICET, IAFE, CC 67 Suc 28 C1428ZAA, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina
70.Cork Inst Technol, Dept Phys Sci, Cork, Ireland
71.Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA
72.Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA
73.ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy
74.Osservatorio Astron Codi Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy
75.Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy
76.St Petersburg State Univ, Astron Inst, Univ Skij Pr 28, St Petersburg 198504, Russia
77.Pulkovo Observ, St Petersburg, Russia
78.Univ Crete, Dept Phys, Iraklion 71003, Greece
79.Univ Crete, ITCP, Iraklion 71003, Greece
80.Fdn Res & Technol Hellas, IESL, Iraklion 7110, Greece
81.Abastumani Observ, Mt Kanobili 0301, Abastumani, Rep of Georgia
82.Kazan Fed Univ, Engelhardt Astron Observ, Tatarstan, Russia
83.Chinese Acad Sci, Xinjiang Astron Observ, Urumqi 830011, Peoples R China
84.Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Astron, 72 Tsarigradsko Shosse Blvd, BU-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria
85.Bulgarian Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, 72 Tsarigradsko Shosse Blvd, BU-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria
86.Univ Colorado, Dept Phys, Denver, CO 80217 USA
87.Brigham Young Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Provo, UT 84602 USA
88.Natl Cent Univ, Grad Inst Astron, 300 Zhongda Rd, Zhongli 32001, Taiwan
89.European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany
90.Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, IC2,146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England
91.Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Apdo Postal 70-264, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico
92.Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Apdo Postal 810, Ensenada 22800, Baja California, Mexico
93.Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA
94.Univ Chile, Dept Astron, Camino El Observ 1515, Santiago, Chile
95.CALTECH, Cahill Ctr Astron & Astrophys, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA
96.Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, Turku 20014, Finland
97.Aalto Univ, Metsahovi Radio Observ, Metsahovintie 114, Kylmala 02540, Finland
98.Aalto Univ, Dept Elect & Nanoengn, POB 15500, Aalto 00076, Finland
99.Univ Maryland Baltimore Cty, Dept Phys, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 USA
100.NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Code 663, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA
101.Rice Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, MS 108,6100 Main St, Houston, TX 77251 USA
102.Boston Univ, Inst Astrophys Res, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 USA
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Ahnen, M. L.,Ansoldi, S.,Antonelli, L. A.,et al. Extreme HBL behavior of Markarian 501 during 2012[J]. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,2018,620:23.
APA Ahnen, M. L..,Ansoldi, S..,Antonelli, L. A..,Arcaro, C..,Babic, A..,...&Baring, M. G..(2018).Extreme HBL behavior of Markarian 501 during 2012.ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS,620,23.
MLA Ahnen, M. L.,et al."Extreme HBL behavior of Markarian 501 during 2012".ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 620(2018):23.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
Ahnen-2018-Extreme H(916KB)期刊论文出版稿开放获取CC BY-NC-SAView Application Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[Ahnen, M. L.]'s Articles
[Ansoldi, S.]'s Articles
[Antonelli, L. A.]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[Ahnen, M. L.]'s Articles
[Ansoldi, S.]'s Articles
[Antonelli, L. A.]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[Ahnen, M. L.]'s Articles
[Ansoldi, S.]'s Articles
[Antonelli, L. A.]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
File name: Ahnen-2018-Extreme HBL behavior of Markarian 5.pdf
Format: Adobe PDF
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.